… machine learning
… Facebook’s machine learning tools predict your preferences better than any psychologist.
… AlphaFold .. has produced the most accurate predictions yet of protein structures
… why they work .. no explanation, no set of rules
… So much data had accumulated .. finding relationships
… the old scientific method – hypothesise, predict, test – would be relegated to the dustbin of history
… computational neuroscientist
… theory refuses to die
… what’s the best way to acquire knowledge and where does science go from here?
… humans turn out to be deeply uncomfortable with theory-free science
… We don’t like dealing with a black box – we want to know why.
… What AlphaFold does is also discovery
… datasets are biased, because scientists don’t collect data evenly or neutrally
… humans are biased too and, unlike AIs, in ways that are very hard to interrogate or correct
… “Explainable AI”, which addresses how to bridge the interpretability gap /22-01-12