Stanisław Michno Anna Segiet Kwadrałki Krzysztof Globisz Daniel Dennett Jura Kluby TP Wrocław Symetrałki Biesiada Filozoficzna Dominika Dudek Ewa Lipska What exists in physics?

Stopping CO2 from entering the atmosphere will almost certainly fail to keep global warming below the promised 2°C—for that you also have to suck out huge amounts of the CO2 that is already there. But almost nobody is talking about how ...

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CO2 could soon reach levels that, it’s widely agreed, will lead to catastrophe.
 …  Carbon-dioxide removal is, potentially, a trillion-dollar enterprise because it offers a way not just to slow the rise in CO2 but to reverse it.
 …  the power generated by a Nigeria-size solar farm would be enough to remove all the CO2 emitted
 …  Carbon dioxide should be regarded the same way we view other waste products, like sewage or garbage. We don’t expect people to stop producing waste.
 …  Petra Nova plant, near Houston, uses post-combustion carbon capture on a large scale
 …  carbon dioxide removal .. It may be impossible to manage and it may also be impossible to manage without. /17-11-15

Can a Robot Join the Faith?
 …  The recent awarding of Saudi citizenship to an android named Sophia raises a strange and unexpectedly pressing theological question.
 …  Neom .. international trade center, built from scratch, .. five hundred billion dollars, on the shores of the Red Sea .. the future of human civilization .. inhabited by armies of artificially intelligent bots
 …  Sophia is a chatty A.I. android born of the Hanson Robotics lab, in Hong Kong. In conversation, she will look you in eye in order to memorize your face
 …  sixty-two facial expresssions
 …  she learns constantly
 …  she even managed to output some witticisms about not destroying humankind.
 …  modelled after Audrey Hepburn
 …  Sophia Robot might, in theory, be considered Muslim, or Christian, or Jewish, or Buddhist, or Jain? .. could a robot serve as .. Pope?
 …  one day in the not-so-distant future, the Internet will suddenly coalesce into a super-intelligent A.I., infinitely smarter than any of us individually and all of us combined; it will become alive in the blink of an eye, and take over the world before humans even realize what’s happening. .. around 2040
 …  when the Singularity comes to pass, and the bots write their own bibles, the more pressing question may not be whether bots can join our religions but what place we will have in theirs. /17-11-15

Trolley Problem
 …  designed to test our moral intuitions and introduce the differences between Kantian and consequentialist reasoning
 …  Most people announce that they would pull the switch
 …  The persistence of the trolley problem in philosophy and psychology tells us a lot more about the state of those fields than it does about ourselves and our moral choices.
 …  The Good Place
 …  every single answer is horrific, and wild examples like this take us so far afield from ordinary moral choices that they’re close to nonsensical
 …  “If you had to kill one of your parents, which one would it be?”
 …  what the trolley problem largely shows is that it’s very easy to temporarily become a psychopath if your professor says doing so will be intellectually useful
 …  to program collision avoidance algorithms for driverless cars
 …  trolley problem is not just a pointless exercise. It could also be a damaging one, because of the way in which it gets students to start thinking about moral questions. /17-11-08

human biases in science
 …  it seems surprising that science functions at all
 …  Brian Nosek .. “motivated reasoning”
 …  Karl Popper .. falsify her theories—to ask “How am I wrong?” .. instead “How am I right?”
 …  Researchers, like people generally, are bad at thinking about probabilities
 …  Given that science has uncovered a dizzying variety of cognitive biases, the relative neglect of their consequences within science itself is peculiar
 …  much more likely to publish positive than negative results
 …  I could be patient, or get lucky—or I could take the easiest way, making often unconscious decisions about which data I select and how I analyze them, so that a clean story emerges.
 …  Although scientists guard the status quo, they also have the power to change it. /17-11-08

Should we be afraid of AI? Machines seem to be getting smarter and smarter and much better at human jobs, yet true AI is utterly implausible.
 …  Good’s ‘intelligence explosion’
 …  Stephen Hawking in 2014: The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.
 …  Bill Gates .. Elon Musk .. We should be very careful about artificial intelligence.
 …  Tay – an AI-based chat robot .. it quickly became an evil Hitler-loving, Holocaust-denying .. absorbing and being shaped by the nasty messages sent to it. Microsoft apologised.
 …  disbelievers as members of the Church of AItheists
 …  good philosophy is almost always in the boring middle
 …  Singularitarians .. close-enough-to-worry-about but far-enough-not-to-be-around-to-be-proved-wrong
 …  a digital opiate for the masses
 …  What we are going to see are increasingly smart machines able to perform more tasks that we currently perform ourselves.
 …  AI is just computers, computers are just Turing Machines, Turing Machines are merely syntactic engines, and syntactic engines cannot think, cannot know, cannot be conscious. End of story
 …  True AI is not logically impossible, but it is utterly implausible.
 …  so-called undecidable problems .. it is impossible to construct an algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer.
 …  Quantum computers are constrained by the same limits
 …  We are not at the centre of the Universe (Copernicus), of the biological kingdom (Charles Darwin), or of rationality (Sigmund Freud). And after Turing, we are no longer at the centre of the infosphere, the world of information processing and smart agency, either.
 …  We thought we were free because we could buy whatever we wished. Now our spending patterns are predicted by devices as thick as a plank. /17-11-06

Randomness of Language Evolution
 …  English is shaped by more than natural selection
 …  Today, if you wanted to talk about something that’s clear, you’d say that it has clarity. But if you were around in 1890, you would almost certainly have talked about its clearness.
 …  the evolution of languages and of species. Darwin himself wrote about these “curious parallels”
 …  “The survival ... of certain favored words in the struggle for existence is natural selection,” Darwin wrote
 …  genes can also change in frequency for completely random reasons .. pure, dumb luck .. drift
 …  Random processes are simply underappreciated, because we want to come up with interesting explanations. /17-11-03

Martin Luther
 …  Five hundred years .. 95 .. Wittenberg
 …  splitting the thousand-year-old Roman Catholic Church into two churches
 …  hammering episode, so satisfying symbolically—loud, metallic, violent—never occurred .. he sent it to the local archbishop
 …  The quintessentially modern idea of the individual was as unthinkable before Luther
 …  he was vehemently anti-Semitic
 …  Most painful, it seems, for this passionately religious young man was to discover his anger against God.
 …  forgiven x amount of time in Purgatory
 …  This made his texts easy and pleasing to read aloud, at home, to the children.
 …  woodcut illustrations, all by one artist from the Cranach workshop
 …  the only book in the house /17-10-30

AlphaGo mastered the game with no human input
 …  The computer program even devised new strategies previously unknown to human players
 …  AlphaGo Zero trained solely through self play, starting with completely random moves. After a few days’ practice, AlphaGo Zero trounced AlphaGo Lee 100 games to none, researchers report in the Oct. 19 Nature.
 …  computer programs with superhuman smarts could find new cures for diseases
 …  For each turn, AlphaGo Zero drew on its past experience to predict the most likely ways the rest of the game could play out, judge which player would win in each scenario and choose its move accordingly.
 …  AlphaGo Lee used this kind of forethought in matches against other players, but not during practice games.
 …  AlphaGo Zero’s ability to imagine and assess possible futures during training
 …  AlphaGo Zero not only discovered many of the Go strategies that humans have come up with over thousands of years, but also devised new game plans previously unknown to human players.
 …  AlphaGo Zero is still “an idiot savant” that can’t do anything except play Go
 …  they’ll have to be more general-purpose problem-solvers /17-10-30

smart appliances are revolutionizing commerce
 …  Internet of Things
 …  not to mention light bulbs, sex toys, toilets, pet feeders, and a children’s thermos
 …  Alexa .. Amazon has been learning when some customers wake up, go to work, listen to the news, play with their kids, and go to sleep.
 …  a fundamental shift in the relationship between customers and companies
 …  when an appliance is sending a constant stream of data back to its maker
 …  to push prices as low as possible in order to build your customer base /17-10-17

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