starsze: Ren w Kolonii Z samolotu Z wieży Katedry kolońskiej KOD Kolędowanie w Herbewie Biesiada Filozoficzna prof. Andrzej Zoll    wszystkie: wydarzenia

 

Cytaty, ostatni miesiąc  (tu są wszystkie, większą czcionką)

soft, cuddly robots of the future  …  inspired by flexible creatures such as octopuses, caterpillars or fish  …  Instead of requiring intensive (and often imperfect) computations, soft robots built of mostly pliable or elastic materials can just mould themselves to their surroundings.  …  touch people more safely  …  what Darwinian evolution  …  fundamentally new classes of machines  …  Think about how hard it is to tie shoelaces  …  Stretchable sensors can be as sensitive as skin /Nature/16-02-04


Europe, Thomas Piketty  …  The far right  …  a single currency with nineteen different public debts  …  financial markets are completely free to speculate  …  Only a genuine social and democratic refounding of the eurozone  …  develop their own new political institutions  …  the United Kingdom and Poland  …  European Stability Mechanism  …  conference of eurozone nations on debt  …  new form of democratic governance  …  common corporate tax would make it possible to finance investments in infrastructure and in universities  …  innovation and young people  …  the finest model of social welfare on earth  …  make the eurozone work for the common good /16-02-04


Against Multiple Regression Analysis  …  A huge range of science projects are done with multiple regression analysis. The results are often somewhere between meaningless and quite damaging.  …  The correlational—the observational—evidence tells you one thing, the experimental evidence tells you something completely different.  …  the guy who’s taking Vitamin E is also doing everything else right.  …  enormously more deaths per million drivers who drive Ford F150 pickups than for people who drive Volvo  …  who is more likely to be driving the pickup  …  You know virtually nothing about the relative safety of cars based on that study. /16-02-01


Licence to edit genes in human embryos  …  Scientists in London have been granted permission  …  The genetic modifications could help researchers to develop treatments for infertility, but will not themselves form the basis of a therapy.  …  This step in the UK will stimulate debate on legal regulation of germline gene editing /16-02-01


schizophrenia with dramatic genetic discovery  …  new genetic pathway probably reveals what goes wrong neurologically in a young person  …  the most significant mechanistic study about schizophrenia ever  …  In patients with schizophrenia, a variation in a single position in the DNA sequence marks too many synapses for removal and that pruning goes out of control. The result is an abnormal loss of gray matter.  …  C4 was "a dark corner of the human genome," he said, an area difficult to decipher because of its "astonishing level" of diversity. /16-02-01


Nie każdy chce się z tym pogodzić, ludzie chcą mieć nadzieję, że „niebieska parcela”, reinkarnacja, nowa energia etc. Tyle walki o każdy dzień i potem nic? Tego ludzkość nie lubi. I ja to nawet rozumiem. /Ewa Lipska, Gazeta Wyborcza 30.01/16-01-31


Consciousness may be the product of carefully balanced chaos  …  In a new study of how anesthetic drugs affect the brain, researchers suggest that our experience of reality is the product of a delicate balance of connectivity between neurons—too much or too little and consciousness slips away.  …  Consciousness ascribes meaning to the pattern of photons hitting your retina, thus differentiating you from a digital camera. Although the brain still receives these data when we lose consciousness, no coherent sense of reality can be assembled.  …  brain activity varies widely between conscious and unconscious states  …  optimal level of connectivity between neurons that creates the maximum number of possible pathways.  …  consciousness might emerge from a careful balancing that causes the brain to “explore” the maximum number of unique pathways to generate meaning  …  “If you’re in a critical point, the brain is really chaotic,” Boly says. “If you’re far from there, it’s too monotonous or stable.” /16-01-30


Brain Maps Time  …  our thoughts may take place on a mental space-time canvas  …  the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex, both famous for their role in memory and navigation — can also act as a sort of timer.  …  cells aren’t tuned only to space but are capable of encoding any relevant property: time, smell or even taste.  …  Are there dedicated neurons in the brain doing nothing else but keeping track of time? /16-01-30


Go—a 2,500-year-old game that’s exponentially more complex than chess  …  machine-versus-man  …  AI system went undefeated in five games  …  deep learning  …  vast collection of Go moves from expert players—about 30 million  …  system against itself .. to generate a new collection of moves  …  Monte Carlo tree search  …  graphics processing units …   …  That includes war or business or [financial] trading.  …  What if the universe is just a giant game of Go? /16-01-30


West vs. East  …  the West is quite so alarmed at what is happening in the East  …  Hungary and Poland – and Slovakia to a lesser degree – have discovered the magic of the conservative, authoritarian state and are moving to restrict the independence of the media and the judiciary.  …  How to let Poland know that rules must be followed without shoving the country into a corner?  …  What is happening in Warsaw is big trouble. /16-01-29


American politics has taken a dangerous turn  …  Mr Trump  …  The 50:50 nation  …  America, what on earth is going on? /16-01-29


our thinking about evolution  …  evolutionary function  …  different forms of purpose  …  human behaviour is not a ragbag of disconnected behaviour patterns with separate evolutionary histories. What evolves is an emotional constitution which shapes our lives as a whole. We have to explain particular actions by finding their place in it.  …  they still believe that, behind this screen, there lie hidden the real causes, elements of evolutionary advantage  …  group-selection  …  deriving all our motivation from the single stem of “selfishness” – enlightened self-interest – is, says Darwin, radically mistaken.  …  The resulting mythology of selfishness suited the Thatcherite age  …  genes themselves were not actually solitary but highly co-operative  …  simple atomistic pattern was neither workable nor necessary  …  natural selection can perfectly well take place at a number of different levels  …  The past half-century was the age of reductionism  …  Now we are entering the age of holism  …  superorganism  …  group-selection is particularly plausible in the case of humans because of the invention of speech  …  subjective phenomenon as a serious influence in the world  …  the constant flow of inner activity by which we respond to the life around us – also affect the world  …  Life for us is not just the absence of death.  …  a grave objection to the sociobiological insistence that everything has an evolutionary function  …  an evolutionary advantage behind every human taste – including, say, the taste for doing mathematics  …  are done for their own sake because they fulfil our nature  …  teleology is obsolete  …  to say that feet are organs for walking on is only to say that that this is what they do  …  pre-existing direction  …  among many scientists is the seemingly more sceptical view that the cosmos is meaningless  …  Richard Dawkins  …  Nature /16-01-25


domesticated animals escape and evolve  …  mobile molecular-biology lab  …  chickens of Kauai are evolving into something quite different from their wild predecessors  …  reflect that past, but maintaining others that had been selected by humans  …  homogeneity suggests that a gene has surged through the population in the recent past, probably because it offers some benefit.  …  If feralization were domestication played backwards  …  brains of domestic chickens are smaller than those of junglefowl /Nature/16-01-25


Using techniques from evolutionary biology, scientists have traced folk stories back to the Bronze Age.  …  relationships between versions of a story using the same tools that evolutionary biologists use to study species  …  the last common ancestor of a group of stories  …  Faust to blues lore, but the most ancient version, involving the blacksmith, comes from the Bronze Age!  …  older than Christianity  …  Despite being fictitious, they work as simulations of reality /16-01-23


Memory capacity of brain is 10 times more  …  petabyte range  …  two synapses from the axon of one neuron  …  how the brain is so energy efficient  …  help engineers build computers  …  the design principle for how hippocampal neurons function with low energy but high computation power.  …  brain tissue down to a nanomolecular level.  …  there are actually 26 discrete sizes that can change over a span of a few minutes  …  how much information could potentially be stored in synaptic connections.  …  26 sizes of synapses correspond to about 4.7 “bits” of information. Previously, it was thought that the brain was capable of just one to two bits for short and long memory storage in the hippocampus.  …  Using probabilistic transmission turns out to be as accurate and require much less energy for both computers and brains /Kurzweil/16-01-23


Accommodationism  …  Science, Religion and the Nature(s) of Human Inquiry  …  Faith vs Fact  …  accommodationists usually are atheists, because a religious person who accepts scientific findings (as opposed to, say, a fundamentalist creationist) is just that, a religious person who accepts science  …  The most famous .. accommodationists was Stephen Jay Gould.  …  anti-accommodationists, like Richard Dawkins  …  NOMA  …  religious stories are best interpreted as allegories  …  not seeking funding from the Templeton Foundation.  …  more general belief in some sort of transcendental (i.e., non-material) entity.  …  There is no logical contradiction between accepting all the findings of modern science and believing in a transcendental reality.  …  a personal God who is involved in history.  …  God as working through the laws of nature  …  incompatibility arises from the radically different methods used by science and religion  …  To even talk of a “method” used by religion to seek knowledge is an obvious category mistake.  …  some “religious” claims are eminently falsifiable, and have, in fact, been falsified. /16-01-21


Consciousness doesn’t happen. It’s a mistaken construct.  …  These days it’s not hard to understand how the brain can process information about the world,  …  How do we get the inner feeling?  …  awareness, phenomenology, qualia, experience. It seems non-physical, ethereal,  …  quantum states of microscopic tubules inside the neurons  …  independent of the brain altogether, as many mystics claim.  …  The brain constructs inaccurate models of the world.  …  The consciousness we describe is non-physical, confusing, irreducible, and unexplainable, because that packet of information in the brain is incoherent.  …  act of a massive computer. The brain also describes this act to itself. That description, shaped by millions of years of evolution  …  Artificial consciousness may just be a hard problem within our grasp. /16-01-15


Never Vote for Donald Trump  …  Trump is precisely the kind of man our system of government was designed to avoid  …  a demagogic figure who does not view himself as part of our constitutional system but rather as an alternative to it. /16-01-15


How We Learn Fairness  …  monkeys hate being disadvantaged  …  disadvantageous-inequity aversion  …  instinctual aversion to getting less than others  …  babies as young as twelve months prefer fair-minded cartoon animals to unfair ones  …  Unlike other animals, we sometimes balk at receiving more than other people.  …  The question for psychologists is whether our aversion to benefitting from inequality is innate, .. some form of socialization.  …  The absolute number of candies matters less than my relative status.  …  for older kids who are transitioning into adolescence, status doesn’t always come from having more.  …  What factors in society could create a norm whereby it’s valuable to establish yourself publicly as someone who doesn’t want to receive more than others?  …  Our ideas about fairness are relativistic, rather than absolute.  …  fairness as a form of social signalling.  …  People tend not to care about equality as an abstract principle; instead, they use fairness to negotiate their place in a social hierarchy. /16-01-13


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