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Wydarzenia wcześniejsze:    Maj, makro Kraków 1919 Elżbieta Szmytka Kent Nagano ks. prof. Michał Heller Arianna Savall Dwójka Cricoteka Fizycy Agnieszka Traczewska ...

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The idea of free information is extremely dangerous
 …  Yuval Noah Harari
 …  the long-term past of humankind and the long-term future
 …  we are heading towards a full-scale arms race of artificial intelligence, which is very, very bad news.
 …  Liberalism is based on the assumption that you have privileged access to your own inner world of feelings and thoughts and choices, and nobody outside you can really understand you. This is why your feelings are the highest authority in your life and also in politics and economics – the voter knows best, the customer is always right. Even though neuroscience shows us that there is no such thing as free will, in practical terms it made sense because nobody could understand and manipulate your innermost feelings. But now the merger of biotech and infotech in neuroscience and the ability to gather enormous amounts of data on each individual and process them effectively means we are very close to the point where an external system can understand your feelings better than you. We’ve already seen a glimpse of it in the last epidemic of fake news.
 …  The more people believe in free will, that their feelings represent some mystical spiritual capacity, the easier it is to manipulate them
 …  There is no penalty for creating a sensational story that is not true.
 …  whether we have the psychological resilience to sustain such a level of change /18-08-09


Unreality of the Quantum World
 …  Wheeler .. elementary quantum phenomena are not real until observed .. anti-realism.
 …  Mach-Zehnder interferometer
 …  The Delayed-Choice Experiment
 …  to avoid retro-causality is to deny the photon any intrinsic reality and argue that the photon becomes real only upon measurement.
 …  Causal modeling involves establishing cause-and-effect relationships between various elements of an experiment.
 …  A hidden variable, in this context, is something that’s absent from standard quantum mechanics but that influences the photon’s behavior in some way.
 …  the first phase shift can take one of three values, and the second one of two values. That makes six possible experimental settings
 …  all three showed that the formula is greater than zero with irrefutable statistical significance. They ruled out the classical causal models of the kind that can explain Wheeler’s delayed-choice experiment.
 …  the most popular hidden variable theory remains unaffected by these experiments. The de Broglie-Bohm theory, a deterministic and realistic alternative to standard quantum mechanics, is perfectly capable of explaining the delayed-choice experiment. In this theory, particles always have positions (which are the hidden variables), and hence have objective reality, but they are guided by a wave. So reality is both wave and particle.
 …  quantum random-number generator
 …  source of randomness using photons coming from distant quasars, some from more than halfway across the universe. /18-07-31


neurons in fruit-fly brain
 …  3D image of a fruit fly’s brain that’s so detailed, researchers can trace connections between neurons across the entire organ.
 …  to completely understanding fruit-fly behaviour. /18-07-24


Is Poland Retreating from Democracy?
 …  A debate about the country’s past has revealed sharply divergent views of its future.
 …  Elisabeth Zerofsky
 …  up to three years in prison for any false claim that “the Polish Nation or the Republic of Poland is responsible or co-responsible for Nazi crimes committed by the Third Reich.”
 …  Anna Azari, said that the law could be seen as criminalizing Holocaust survivors
 …  There were no Polish units working under the Waffen S.S., as was the case with Dutch, Norwegian, and Estonian units.
 …  Warsaw suffered like no other European capital during the war.
 …  Catherine the Great, wrote that Poland was the home of “chaos,” “barbarity,” and “fanaticism.” For hundreds of years, Poland’s German and Russian neighbors had depicted Poland as backward and unenlightened, deserving of invasion.
 …  A few days after my meeting with Nowak, I looked up Comey’s speech. Nowak is a careful speaker, so I was surprised to find that what he’d told me wasn’t entirely true. In his address, Comey said that he asked every F.B.I. special agent he hired to visit the Holocaust Museum, in order to understand the human propensity for moral surrender. “In their minds,” Comey said, “the murderers and accomplices of Germany, and Poland, and Hungary, and so many, many other places, didn’t do something evil. They convinced themselves it was the right thing to do.”
 …  In the summer of 2017, the sociologist Maciej Gdula interviewed Law and Justice supporters from a provincial town not far from Warsaw, many of whom had benefitted greatly from the economic boom. Still, they felt despised by Polish élites. Kaczyński, they thought, offered a vision in which “you no longer have to go to university, get a mortgage and buy a flat, and declare that you have ‘European values,’ in order to be a fully-fledged member of the Polish nation,” as one reviewer of Gdula’s book, “The New Authoritarianism,” put it.
 …  Kaczyński said that accepting refugees would “completely change our culture and radically lower the level of safety in our country.” That year, however, Poland took in the second-highest number of immigrants in the E.U., mostly from Ukraine.
 …  Kaczyński rarely speaks to foreign media.
 …  Jarosław has never married, and lived with his mother until her death, in 2013. Now he lives with his cats. He opened a bank account for the first time in 2009, does not have a driver’s license, and prefers to eat alone. A person who knows Kaczyński told me that, since the death of his brother, he has acted without the check on his decisions that Lech used to provide.
 …  Kaczyński’s relationship with Rydzyk is strategic
 …  Adam Michnik .. most influential liberal newspaper, Gazeta Wyborcza, told me that he worried about a “creeping coup d’état that is transforming Poland into a Putinist-type state.”
 …  the percentage of people who think that Poles suffered as much as Jews during the war rose from thirty-nine in 1992 to sixty-two in 2012.
 …  “Hate speech is more and more accepted by this government,” Suchanow told me. A few weeks after the Cursed Soldiers demonstration, neo-Nazis marched through Warsaw, some wearing the S.S. insignia, which is illegal in Poland; the police protected them against far-left counterprotesters.
 …  A revolution .. whether it was a conservative one or a nationalist one /The New Yorker/18-07-24


Obama
 …  During the last decades of the twentieth century, the progressive, democratic vision that Nelson Mandela represented in many ways set the terms of international political debate.
 …  A respect for human rights and the rule of law,
 …  the entry of China into the world’s system of trade
 …  Even when those human rights were violated, those who violated human rights were on the defensive.
 …  Suddenly a billion people were lifted out of poverty,
 …  all that progress is real.
 …  And while globalization and technology
 …  an explosion in economic inequality.
 …  many titans of industry and finance are increasingly detached from any single locale or nation-state
 …  shifting profits to a tax haven with the help of high-priced accountants or lawyers, or their decision to take advantage of lower-cost immigrant labor, .. it’s just a rational response,
 …  while some Western commentators were declaring the end of history
 …  most violently with 9/11
 …  Within the United States, within the European Union, challenges to globalization first came from the left but then came more forcefully from the right
 …  populist movements—which, by the way, are often cynically funded by right-wing billionaires
 …  I am not being alarmist. I am simply stating the facts. Look around.
 …  authoritarian control, combined with mercantilist capitalism
 …  Who needs free speech, as long as the economy is going good?
 …  Social media—once seen as a mechanism to promote knowledge and understanding and solidarity—has proved to be just as effective promoting hatred and paranoia and propaganda and conspiracy theories.
 …  Two different narratives about who we are and who we should be.
 …  Where might makes right, and politics is a hostile competition between tribes and races and religions, and nations compete in a zero-sum game, constantly teetering on the edge of conflict until full-blown war breaks out? Is that what we think?
 …  I believe in Nelson Mandela’s vision. I believe in a vision shared by Gandhi and King and Abraham Lincoln.
 …  we have no choice but to move forward
 …  The fact that authoritarian governments have been shown, time and time again, to breed corruption, because they’re not accountable; to repress their people; to lose touch eventually with reality; to engage in bigger and bigger lies that ultimately result in economic and political and cultural and scientific stagnation. Look at history. Look at the facts.
 …  of tribal, racial, or religious superiority as their main organizing principle
 …  The fact that technology cannot be put back in a bottle
 …  Now, I don’t believe in economic determinism. Human beings don’t live on bread alone.
 …  measuring their well-being by how they compare to their neighbors, and whether their children can expect to live a better life.
 …  not involve unregulated, unbridled, unethical capitalism.
 …  Sustainable Development Goals
 …  artificial intelligence is here, and it is accelerating
 …  universal income .. work week
 …  the French football team that just won the World Cup. Because not all of those folks look like Gauls to me. But they’re French. They’re French.
 …  newcomers should make an effort to adapt to the language and customs of their new home. Those are legitimate things,
 …  democracy is about more than just elections
 …  No individual—not Mandela, not Obama—are entirely immune to the corrupting influences of absolute power
 …  We have to stop pretending that countries that just hold an election where sometimes the winner somehow magically gets ninety per cent of the vote
 …  the efficiency that’s offered by an autocrat, that’s a false promise
 …  teaching our children, and ourselves, to engage with people not only who look different but who hold different views. This is hard.
 …  it would be possible to arrive at a basis for common ground. I should add: for this to work, we have to actually believe in an objective reality.
 …  when almost all of the world’s scientists tell us it is.
 …  to reject the very concept of objective truth.
 …  We see the utter loss of shame among political leaders,
 …  our schools teach critical thinking to our young people
 …  the end of democracy and the triumph of tribalism and the strongman. We have to resist that cynicism.
 …  So, young people who are in the audience, who are listening, my message to you is simple: keep believing, keep marching, keep building, keep raising your voice.
 …  People must learn to hate, and, if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart.” Love comes more naturally to the human heart; let’s remember that truth. /18-07-22


computer programming to a vast new audience
 …  a technological version of the Monty Python character who accidentally became the Messiah in the film “Life of Brian”.
 …  professional developers—nearly 40% of whom use it, with a further 25% wishing to do so, according to Stack Overflow, a programming forum—but also with ordinary folk.
 …  Pythonistas
 …  C and C++ are “lower-level” options which give the user more control over what is happening within a computer’s processor. Java is popular for building large, complex applications. JavaScript is the language of choice for applications accessed via a web browser.
 …  offering computer science to all, and in primary schools.
 …  In the 1960s, Fortran bestrode the world. As teaching languages for neophytes, both Basic and Pascal had their moments in the sun. /18-07-20


/NewYorker/18-07-20


perception may be thought of as a “controlled hallucination”
 …  the brain’s expectations and predictions about reality rather than the direct sensory evidence that the brain receives.
 …  the algorithm changes the parameters of its [predictive] model in such a way that next time, when it encounters the same situation, it will be less surprised
 …  The predictions then get sent down as feedback to lower-level sensory regions of the brain. The brain compares its predictions with the actual sensory input it receives, “explaining away” whatever differences, or prediction errors, it can by using its internal models to determine likely causes for the discrepancies.
 …  predictive coding
 …  Bayesian Brains and Efficient Computing
 …  Aspects of autism .. might be characterized by an inability to ignore prediction errors relating to sensory signals at the lowest levels of the brain’s processing hierarchy.
 …  schizophrenia: The brain may pay too much attention to its own predictions about what is going on and not enough to sensory information that contradicts those predictions.
 …  perception and cognition are not that separate
 …  how vulnerable our mental function is.
 …  this research has the potential for exciting applications in machine learning.
 …  machines closer to intelligence
 …  Predictive coding “is as important to neuroscience as evolution is to biology” /18-07-16


What Religion Gives Us
 …  to defend religion. Respect for it has diminished in almost every corner of modern life — not just among atheists and intellectuals, but among the wider public, too.
 …  jihad campaigns against “infidels”
 …  E. O. Wilson’s claim that “for the sake of human progress, the best thing we could possibly do would be to diminish, to the point of eliminating, religious faiths.”
 …  we still need religion
 …  I do not intend to try to rescue religion as reasonable.
 …  Its irrationality may even be the source of its power.
 …  our minds are motivated primarily by ancient emotional systems
 …  religion can provide direct access to this emotional life in ways that science does not.
 …  we need religion because it is a road-tested form of emotional management.
 …  Religious practice is a form of social interaction
 …  oxytocin, internal opioids, dopamine and other positive affects
 …  Emotions are not true or false.
 …  religion is primarily therapeutic .. palliative pain management
 …  the atheist has no recourse to any pain management in his own life. In which case, I envy his remarkably good fortune. For the rest of us, there is aspirin, alcohol, religion, hobbies, work, love, friendship.
 …  cultural analgesics /18-07-16


Cardinal August Hlond
 …  In Poland, a revisionist manipulation of the history of the Holocaust is under way, and Pope Francis may be its unwitting ally.
 …  Indeed, he was the only cardinal to be arrested by the Gestapo
 …  “So long as Jews remain Jews, a Jewish problem exists and will continue to exist.”
 …  blaming Jews for their “corruptive influence on morals,” “pornography,” “fraud,” “usury,” and “prostitution.”
 …  Queen Jadwiga of Poland in 1997, marking the end of Communism.
 …  Hlond’s sainthood cause was initiated in 1992, during the Solidarity era, when his postwar opposition to the Soviets could be highlighted, and it was a failure of full moral responsibility even then. But today, with the reëmergence of anti-Semitism in Poland,  …  /18-07-12


Returning Humans to the Center of the Cosmos
 …  Anthropocene .. the warm period of the past 10–12 millennia
 …  Geology of Mankind
 …  a counter-Copernican revolution
 …  The Anthropocene makes humanity great again.
 …  chairman of the AWG, Jan Zalasiewicz
 …  mobile phones .. have “good fossilization potential.” The phonal layer of the Anthropocene (not to be confused with the faunal layer of the Mesozoic)
 …  humanity is driving a “sixth mass extinction” .. 30,000 species a year
 …  nature is more resilient than is generally assumed
 …  building a robust geosphere–biosphere complex (the ecosphere) in our Galaxy, topped by a life-form that is appropriately tailored for explaining the existence of that complex, and of itself
 …  Ecology is widely perceived as being a theoretical and conceptual basket case .. no known underlying regularities in its basic processes
 …  Since the time of Hutton, geology has struggled to study the Earth as a scientific object separate from the religious, ideological, and political persuasions of the day. With the Anthropocene, that struggle, such as it was, is over. /18-07-11


science and the humanities against each other
 …  "techies" .. "fuzzies" .. an unshakable stereotype
 …  STEM .. vita activa: practical application toward the public good
 …  humanities .. vita contemplativa: imagination, speculation, reflection, and an alignment with higher values beyond the "merely" practical, political, and economic.
 …  useful versus useless, material versus idealistic, narrowly careerist versus broadly learned.
 …  transdisciplinary thinking .. speak languages of multiple disciplines
 …  we need to eliminate the existing hierarchy of subjects /18-07-11


Thomas Bayes and the crisis in science
 …  Footnotes to Plato
 …  We are living in new Bayesian age.
 …  Statisticians increasingly rely on Bayesian logic. Even our email spam filters work on Bayesian principles.
 …  It is only over the past couple of decades that the tide has turned. //for example: AW, 1983//
 …  This states that the probability of A given B equals the probability of B given A, times the probability of A, divided by the probability of B.
 …  The focus of his paper is not his theorem, which appears only in passing, but the logic of learning from evidence.
 …  initial probabilities to the hypotheses
 …  “prior probabilities” are not always available
 …  instead they cooked up the idea of “significance tests”. Don’t worry about prior probabilities, they said. Just reject your hypothesis if you observe results that would be very unlikely if it were true.
 …  Fisherians .. Neyman-Pearsonians
 …  the normally recommended level was 5 per cent
 …  In truth, this is nonsense on stilts. One of the great scandals of modern intellectual life is the way generations of statistics students have been indoctrinated into the farrago of significance testing.
 …  Science is currently said to be suffering a “replicability crisis”.
 …  “the Bayesian brain”
 …  unsurprisingly, many mainstream university statistics departments are still unready
 …  Some defenders of the old regime have suggested that the remedy is to “raise the significance level” from 5 per cent to, say, 0.1 per cent
 …  a researcher shows me data that would only occur one time in a 1,000 if the position of Jupiter were irrelevant to British election results, I’ll respond that this leaves the idea of a Jovian influence on the British voter only slightly less crazy than it always was. /18-07-11


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